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非洲动态信息摘报 | 南非、非洲与中国

2019-11-18 21:39| 发布者: 中非视界| 查看: 31| 评论: 0

摘要: 编者按:非洲动态信息摘报关注非洲大陆热点新闻的电子月刊,由浙江师范大学非洲研究院主管、非洲研究院研究生会主办、非洲动态信息摘报编译团队主导完成。非洲研究院师生持续关注非洲动态,每月向本报投稿近期外文新 ...

编者按:

非洲动态信息摘报关注非洲大陆热点新闻的电子月刊,浙江师范大学非洲研究院主管、非洲研究院研究生会主办、非洲动态信息摘报编译团队主导完成。非洲研究院师生持续关注非洲动态,每月向本报投稿近期外文新闻的译文,通过编译新闻的方式加强自身素养,努力做到“非洲情怀、中国特色、全球视野”。本期摘报聚焦南非共和国,设有专家供稿、新闻简讯、非洲印象三大栏目,阐释南非共和国国内内国际要闻与当前形势。


专家供稿


SOUTH AFRICA, AFRICA AND CHINA
Ambassador Gert Grobler, IASZNU, ZJNU
格特·格勒博勒大使系浙江师范大学非洲研究院南非籍高级研究员,南非国际关系与合作部欧美司原代理副总司长,其外交生涯涉及美国、英国、西班牙、德国、安道尔、日本、马达加斯加等许多国家和地区,在南非外交系统工作近半个世纪,横跨新旧南非,是南非史上特殊时期的见证者与参与者。

Background
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South Africa is a vast country, the biggest country in Southern Africa and the 24th largest country in the world byland area with over 58 million people. It is a multi-ethnic societyencompassing a wide variety of cultures, languages and religions. Its pluralistic make-up is reflected in the Constitution’s recognition of 11 official languages in the country.

South Africa’s Political and 
Economic Developments
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SA is a Constitutional multi-party democracy, with the Constitution, the supreme rule of law in the country. SA is a healthy and robust democracy with one of the largest, most diversified and industrialized economies on the African continent. South Africa accounts for 24 percent of the continents GDP and is rated by the World Bank as an upper middle-income country, one of only 4 on the continent together with Mauritius, Botswana and Gabon. South Africa has a free trade system and it is one of the founding members of the World Trade Organization. Its key economic sectors aremining, services in particular financial, transport, manufacturing, tourism and agriculture.
South Africa’s economy grew substantially since the fall of apartheid in 1994 but the growth rate has declined markedly in recent years and the current growth outlook for 2019 is approximately 1 percent. In order to address the high unemployment rate, the economy needs togrow 4 to 6 percent per annum. This year, the economy will record growth that is lower than expected (and much lower than what we need).  Government finances are stretched about as far as they can go, and several industries are looking at retrenching workers. The government has, however, made progress in addressing this serious matter by announcing an economic stimulus and recovery plan in response to South Africa‘s economy’s first recession in nine years.
Building on the stimulus and recovery plan, the South African government will finalize a clear economic growth strategy within the next few weeks. It is clear that, as a country, we are taking firm action to grow the economy and create jobs.

South Africa and the 
International Community
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After the release of Nelson Mandela in 1990 and particularly after the peaceful transition which led to the first democratic elections in April 1994, South Africa as a democratic non-racist and non-sexist country was welcomed back into the international community. Today SA is a proud member of the community of nations with a strong global footprint and with 125 Diplomatic Missions in 105 countries.
The essence of our foreign policy is to improve the living conditions of South Africans and contribute to the well-being of our fellow Africans as well as all those who are yearning for peace, human security and prosperity in the world. It is in our interest that Africa is peaceful, politically united and economically successful.
Africa is central to South Africa’s foreign policy and our number one priority. South Africa now has 47 Embassiesin Africa compared to 7 in 1994 and trade between SA and the rest of Africa grew from R12 billion in 1994 to R450 billion in 2018. South Africa continuesto play a key role with conflict resolution and peace-keeping on the continentand believes in negotiated solutions of disputes through inclusive dialogue, guided by the principles and values of Nelson Mandela.
South Africa has great confidence in the future of Africa. In fact, “Africa is rising” with a “new Scramble for Africa”taking place! Africa initiated the AU’s Agenda 2063 Strategic Framework which is Africa’s blueprint and master plan for transforming the continent into aglobal powerhouse of the future, into the “Africa we all want”!
Africa took the initiative to launch the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) this year. The establishment of the AfCFTA with a potential market of 1.2 billion people with a combined GDP of 2.2 trillion USD will enhance intra Africa trade and boost economic growth further. The coming into operation of the AfCFTA is a clear demonstration that there is political will amongst Africa’s leaders to integrate the economy of our continent, thereby creating new opportunities for greater volumes of trade among African countries.
South Africa will continue to recommit ourcountry to the principles of multilateralism. South Africa is an active member of the community of nations, and we are committed to multilateralism asenshrined in the United Nations Charter. We are also active in other multilateral institutions, including the G20, the G77+China, BRICS, theNon-Aligned Movement, etc.
South Africa is serving as a non-permanentmember state of the UN Security Council for the period 2019-2020. South Africa’s tenure in the Security Council is dedicated to the legacy of President Nelson Mandela, who was known for his commitment to peace. South Africa’s termwill also be an opportunity for the country to advocate for support for the African Union’s goal of “Silencing the Guns” on the Continent by 2020.

South Africa and China
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South Africa and China have excellent relations. In 2018 South Africa and China celebrated the 20th anniversary ofthe establishment of diplomatic ties. The bilateral relations have realized “atriple jump from a “Partnership” to a “Strategic Partnership” to a “Comprehensive Strategic Partnership” defined by three major characteristics namely being strategic, multi-dimensional and mutually beneficial. The friendship and relationship boasts four advantages of political trust, economic complementarity, people to people relations and is firmly anchored to four cooperation platforms namely FOCAC, BRICS, the Belt and Road Initiative and South-South Cooperation. China is South Africa's biggest trading partner in Africa for 10 consecutive years, amounting to 43.55 billion US dollars in 2018. SA and China also maintain close coordination in international and regional affairs. In fact South Africa and China have created an excellent model for the further development of China and Africa relations and South-South cooperation.
In fact last week(October 28th, the Deputy President of South Africa Mr. David Mabuza, came to China to participate in the very important China/SA Bilateral Commission (BNC) in Beijing. The deliberations of the BNC were highly productive and will take our bilateral cooperation to a higher andmore strategic level. Deputy President Mabuza also met with Vice President Wang Qishan as well as Premier Li Keqiang during which he thanked China for its excellent cooperation with South Africa and Africa. Deputy President Mabuza stated that SA admired China’s development achievements and that SA would like to learn from China and also deepen its practical cooperation with China in anumber of sectors.

South Africa welcomes the constructive and positive role that China is playing on the African continent. In fact, China is a trusted and valued friend of Africa and we look forward in joining hands with China to further implement and synergize FOCAC and the BRI with the AU’s Agenda 2063 and the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. China and Africa areon the threshold of deepening its cooperation towards a shared future and inthe process bringing further prosperity and a better life to the 2.6 billion people of China and Africa.


专家供稿译文


南非,非洲与中国
译者:曹磊、张玉婷

背景

南非共和国(以下简称南非)幅员辽阔,是南部非洲最大的国家,也是世界陆地面积第24大的国家,人口超过5800万。它是一个多族群的社会,其中多种文化、多样语言与各类宗教同期并存。南非宪法中对11种官方语言的认可也体现了该国的多元化特征。

 

南非的政治和经济发展历程

南非是一个多党制宪政民主国家,宪法是最高法律。南非同时也是一个稳定强大的民主国家,是非洲大陆经济总量最大、产业最为多样、工业化程度最高的经济体之一,占非洲大陆生产总值约24%,被世界银行评为中等偏上收入国家(非洲大陆仅有毛里求斯、博茨瓦纳和加蓬达到了相近的收入水平)。南非拥有自由贸易体系,是世界贸易组织(WTO)的创始成员国之一,其经济产业主要由矿业、服务业(特别是金融业)、运输业、制造业、旅游业和农业等构成。

南非国内经济总量自1994年破除种族隔离制度以来大幅度持续增长,但近年来经济增长率明显下降,2019年南非经济预期增长约为1%,而想解决高失业率问题则需要达到4%至6%的年经济增长率。今年南非经济增长率将远远低于预期。政府财政正尽可能地缩减,一些行业同时也在考虑裁员。不过南非政府为应对南非经济近9年来的首次衰退宣布实施了经济复苏计划,目前在解决经济增长率下滑方面已取得初步进展。

在经济复苏计划的基础上,南非政府还将在未来几周内敲定一项明确的经济增长战略。很显然,南非作为一个国家,正在采取强有力的举措努力创造就业岗位,积极发展国内经济。

 

南非与国际社会

在纳尔逊·曼德拉于1990年获释之后,尤其是在1994年4月第一次民主选举、实现和平过渡之后,南非作为一个民主的、反对种族主义及反对性别歧视的国家,受到了国际社会的热烈欢迎。如今,南非在全世界享有盛誉,在全球105个国家驻有125个南非外交使团,已昂首屹立于世界民族之林。

南非外交政策旨在努力为南非人民谋幸福,积极为非洲人民及所有渴望和平、安全与繁荣的民众谋福祉。非洲地区的和平、团结与经济发展符合南非的国家利益。

非洲国家是南非外交的中心,也是南非开展外交活动的重点地区。相比于1994年南非在非洲各国的7个大使馆,如今,南非在非洲各国的大使馆数量已增至47个,增幅相对可观。南非与非洲其他地区的贸易总额从1994年的120亿南非兰特增长到2018年的4500亿南非兰特,因此南非将在纳尔逊·曼德拉的原则和价值观指导下,其政府将努力通过对话协商解决各类争端,继续为非洲大陆的和平与安全发挥重要作用。

南非对非洲的未来发展充满信心。事实上,“非洲正在崛起”,一场“新的非洲争夺战”正在发生!非盟提出了2063年议程战略框架,非洲大陆未来将在这一宏伟蓝图的引领下成为全球权利中心,而这样的非洲大陆,着实令人期待!

今年,非洲各国签署成立非洲大陆自由贸易区(AfCFTA),非洲大陆自由贸易区的成立意味着一个12亿人口、生产总值2.2万亿美元的市场的出现,这将促进非洲内部的贸易,进一步推动各国经济增长。非洲大陆自由贸易区的投入运营明确地表达了非洲领导人想要重整非洲大陆经济、促进非洲国家间更大规模贸易形成的意愿。

南非将继续重申多边主义原则。南非积极参与国际社会各项事务,努力践行《联合国宪章》中所载的多边主义,还将积极参与其他多边机构,包括二十国集团峰会、77国加中国集团峰会、金砖国家峰会与不结盟运动等。

南非是联合国安理会2019-2020年非常任理事国,这是以倡导和平而闻名于世的纳尔逊·曼德拉总统统治时期为南非所争取到的,南非在本次任期内也将支持非洲联盟2020年实现非洲大陆上“让枪支沉寂”的目标。

 

南非和中国

中南两国长期友好。2018年,南非和中国共庆建交20周年。两国的双边关系实现了从“伙伴关系”到“战略伙伴关系”再到“全面战略伙伴关系”的三次飞跃,这与中南两国在战略需求、多领域关系及互惠要求的不断深化密切相关。友好的双边关系得益于两国间的政治互信、经济互补及频繁的民间交流,并反过来牢牢支撑四个合作平台,即中非合作论坛、金砖国家峰会、一带一路倡议和南南合作。中国连续10年成为南非最大的外贸伙伴,而2018年两国双边贸易额已经达到了435.5亿美元。中南两国在国际地区事务中也保持着密切的协作。事实上,中南两国的友好关系深化为中非关系与南南国家间的关系奠定了良好的基础。

10月28日,南非副总统马布扎(David Mabuza)访问中国,出席了在京举行的意义重大的中国/南非双边委员会(BNC),中国/南非双边委员会审议成果丰硕,把两国双边合作推向了更高、更具战略意义的地位。马布扎副总统分别与王岐山副主席和李克强总理会晤,并对中国与南非和中国与非洲大陆的友好合作表示了感谢。南非赞赏中国的高速发展,并希望能向中国学习,共同深化多领域合作。

南非欢迎中国在非洲大陆上发挥建设性作用。中国一直是非洲国家信赖和珍视的朋友,南非期待与中国携手,进一步落实中非合作论坛和“一带一路”倡议,同时协调促进非盟2063年议程和联合国2030年可持续发展议程。中非共处于深化合作、共创未来的时代洪流之中,将进一步带领中非26亿人民共创繁荣、同享幸福,为共同构建人类命运共同体而不断奋斗。


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