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中国突然宣布大消息!惊呆美国,世界惊呼:不可能!

2020-3-25 11:48| 发布者: 中非视界| 查看: 69| 评论: 0

摘要: 一则消息,差点淹没在铺天盖地的新闻中。克莱因瓶是一个不可定向的二维紧流形,而球面或轮胎面是可 克莱因瓶 克莱因瓶 定向的二维紧流形。如果观察克莱因瓶,有一点似乎令人困惑-- “67P/楚留莫夫-格拉希门克”彗 ...

一则消息,差点淹没在铺天盖地的新闻中。




克莱因瓶是一个不可定向的二维紧流形,而球面或轮胎面是可 克莱因瓶 克莱因瓶 定向的二维紧流形。如果观察克莱因瓶,有一点似乎令人困惑-- “67P/楚留莫夫-格拉希门克”彗星 [67] 在太 CHAPTER X. TOBACCO OFFERINGS. 1808. It was a beautiful moonlight evening in August. A shadowy haze lingered over the river, which glistened and sparkled in the moonlight. The Chief and several members of his family were seated on the beach in front of the Wigwam listening to the Honorable Joseph Papineau, who, with his son, Louis Joseph, had come up in a canoe to see the falls. The former had recently purchased from Bishop Laval the unsettled seigniory of Petit Nation, and had erected an unpretentious cottage, which he occupied during the summer months. HON. LOUIS JOSEPH PAPINEAU AND MADAME PAPINEAU. From Morgan's "Types of Canadian Women" (copyright, 1903), by permission. HON. LOUIS JOSEPH PAPINEAU AND MADAME PAPINEAU. From Morgan's "Types of Canadian Women" (copyright, 1903), by permission. "It was a lovely vision," said Mr. Papineau, who had just performed the feat of canoeing to the foot of the Chaudiere Falls for the first time. "On our return we climbed the rugged cliff on the south side, and never shall I forget the panorama that spread out before us. The sun, sinking slowly behind the Laurentian hills, had clothed himself with a robe of splendor. The long reflections lay soft on the waters of the river below. The clouds of ascending mist from the Chaudiere took a thousand shades of color as the western sky faded slowly from crimson into gold and from gold to green and gray, and finally displayed dark shapes, out of which imagination might well have formed a thousand monsters.* * Louis Joseph, afterwards known as the Demosthenes of Canada, and who almost succeeded in making Canada a Republic, with himself as President, was evidently much impressed with the scene, which he described as follows: "Le soleil etait pret decendre sous l'horison, la mureille tout limpide etait d'une transparence vivre, tout penetree de lumiere vaguement prismatiseé." "As we watched the gathering shadows my thoughts went back two hundred years, to the time when Champlain went on his first trip up the 'Riviere des Algoumequins,' as he called it. About two years before he took the trip he sent Nicholas de Vignan, a young Frenchman, up the river with some friendly Indians, and Nicholas had returned with the marvellous story that he had reached the North Sea. He said that the journey could be made in a few days. He also gave an account of having seen the wreck of an English ship. "Champlain was completely taken in, and lost no time in starting off to verify the discovery for which the world had been looking for some time. His fleet consisted of two canoes with two Indians and three Frenchmen, one of whom was De Vignan. It was in May, when the river was at its height. When they reached the Gatineau the Indians told him that their tribe were often compelled to conceal themselves amid the hills of the Upper Gatineau from their dreaded enemies, the Iroquois. When Champlain beheld the twin curtain falls yonder, 'like a slow dropping veil of the thinnest lawn,' he exclaimed, 'Le Rideau! Le Rideau!' The Indians told him that the waters formed an arcade under which they delighted to walk, and where they were only wet by the spray. As they rounded the lofty headland opposite he saw the cloud of mist rising from the falls, which the Indians called the 'Asticou,' which means 'Chaudiere' in French, or 'kettle' in English, for the water has worn out a deep basin into which it rushes with a whirling motion which boils up in the midst like a kettle. "You have probably been close enough to have seen it, Madame?" he said, addressing Mrs. Wright. "No," she replied, "I have always been too timid to venture so near to it in a canoe." "Champlain said," continued Mr. Papineau, "that he paddled as near as possible to the falls, when the Indians took the canoes and the Frenchmen and himself carried their arms and provisions. He described with great feeling the sharp and rugged rocks of the portages to pass the falls and rapids until at last, in the afternoon, they embarked upon the peaceful waters of a lake where, he said, there were very beautiful islands filled with vines and with walnut and other agreeable trees." "There are no walnuts on the islands of Lake Chaudiere," interrupted Bearie, "I am quite sure." "He probably saw a butternut tree," said young Louis Joseph, "and thought it produced walnuts." "Champlain's journey came to an abrupt close a few days afterwards," said Mr. Papineau, "when he reached Allumette Island, about seventy miles farther up the river. There was a large settlement of friendly Algonquins, called 'Les Sauvages de l'Isle,' and Champlain tried to obtain several canoes and guides to proceed farther. They, however, had their own commercial reasons for keeping the French from the upper country, and they warned him of the danger of meeting the terrible tribe of the Sorcerers. Champlain said that De Vignan had passed through all these dangers. The head Chief then said to the impostor: "'Is it true that you have said that you have been among the Sorcerers?' "After a long pause he said: 'Yes, I've been there.' "The Indians at once threw themselves upon him with fierce cries as if they would have torn him to pieces, and the Chief said: "'You are a bold liar. You know that every night you slept by my side with my children. How have you the impudence to tell your chief such lies?' "The upshot was that Champlain returned down the Ottawa, followed by an escort of fifty canoes. "When the party reached the Chaudiere the savages, he said, performed their mystic rites. After having carried their canoes to the foot of the Falls, they gathered in a certain spot where one of them, provided with a wooden dish, passed it round, and each one placed in the dish a piece of tobacco. "The collection finished, the dish was placed in the midst of the band and all danced around it, chanting after their fashion. Then one of the chiefs delivered a harangue, explaining that from olden times they had always made such an offering, and that by this means they are protected from their enemies and saved from misfortune, for so the devil persuades them. Then the same chief took the dish and proceeded to throw the tobacco into the Chaudiere, amid the loud shoutings of the band. 'They are so superstitious,' said Champlain, 'that they do not believe that they can make a safe journey if they have not performed this ceremony in this particular place.' "The Chief proceeded to throw the tobacco into the Chaudiere." "The Chief proceeded to throw the tobacco into the Chaudiere." "Ah, Monsieur," Mr. Papineau continued, "it stirred my soul as I stood on that rocky cliff and thought of how many canoes of heroic missionaries, Indian braves and cheery voyageurs have paddled these waters and torn their feet on the rocky shores, going, some of them to death and some to tortures worse than death. As we drifted down with the current in the moonlight the gentle breeze in the pines along the shore seemed to be whispering sad tales of other days." Mr. Papineau, who had spoken with such animation and fluency, relapsed into silence for several minutes, then, rousing himself, said, with even greater enthusiasm and vigor: "Providence has crowned our lives with great blessing since the heroic Daulac struck the death-blow to the power of the Iroquois in this country, and since the English undertook the responsibility of its government. Though I am proud of the fact that every bone and muscle, nerve and sinew within me is French, though I dearly love my Mother Country and my fellow countrymen, I have no hesitation in making the solemn assertion that our country has enjoyed a greater degree of prosperity under the new regime than it ever did under the old. But it must ever be remembered that much of the foundation of that prosperity was laid in the blood of the early French martyrs and in the heroic achievements of the early French settlers." It seemed incredible to the visitors that in a settlement of so recent date their host should have been able to show them a grist-mill, a saw-mill, a vegetable alkali factory, a tannery, a small foundry, a tailor shop, a bakery, a general store, and a hemp-mill, giving employment to over one hundred men. Fortunately for the pioneers of the Ottawa, they were not dependent upon the small revenue derived from the cultivation of the land, but had other resources which afforded them much greater remuneration. The British Navy, which hitherto had been dependent upon Russia for its cordage and lumber, had to look elsewhere for its supply of hemp and timber, owing to the ports of the Baltic having been closed to British ships. The price of hemp having risen from £25 to £118 per ton, they undertook the cultivation of it, and raised over three-fourths of the amount raised in Lower Canada at that time. The exportation of lumber and vegetable alkali, or potash, were also great sources of revenue. In the new clearances were tons of wood ashes from which the lye was extracted and boiled till it looked like molten iron, a barrel of which sold at that time for thirty dollars. Prosperity and success crowned every commercial enterprise upon which they ventured until fire swept every mill, factory and dwelling in the thriving little village out of existence, including thousands of dollars in cash in a small safe in the office, quantities of wheat, hemp, sawn lumber, laths and general merchandise. As there was no compensation in the way of insurance, the loss was much felt. Philemon Wright was not the man to be deterred from climbing the ladder of success, even though he had to mount it by the rungs of adverse circumstances. Though the loss sustained was great, almost overwhelming, he rose above it with a courage which yielded not to disappointment or failure. The cause of the fire long remained a mystery. That it was the work of an incendiary was beyond question. Various theories were advocated by the settlers, but suspicion rested upon Machecawa, who, it was alleged, had been seen by the bookkeeper at a late hour lingering about the mills, a suspicion which gained no credence with the Chief and his family.阳系的周围还包裹着一个庞大的“奥尔特云”。星云内分布着不计其数的冰块、雪团和碎石。其中的某些会受太阳引力影响飞入内太阳系,这就是彗 [76]  在超新星爆发的过程中所释放的能量,需要我们的太阳燃烧900亿年才能与之相当。[77]  超新星研究有着关乎人类自身命运的深层意义。如果一颗超新星爆发的位置非常接近地球,目前国际天文学界普遍认为此距离在100光年以内,它就能够对地球的生物圈产生明显的影响,这样的超新星被称为近地超新星。有研究认为,在地球历史上的奥陶纪大灭绝,就是一颗近地超新星引起的,这次灭绝导致当时地球近60%的海洋生物消失。[78]

克莱因瓶是一个不可定向的二维紧流形,而球面或轮胎面是可 克莱因瓶 克莱因瓶 定向的二维紧流形。如果观察克莱因瓶,有一点似乎令人困惑--克莱因瓶的瓶颈和瓶身是相交的,换句话近代科学兴起的先驱者、是捍卫科学真理并为此献身的殉道士。有另一种说法认为,近代以来关于罗马梵蒂冈的地心说和哥白尼的日心说的斗争是被严重夸大的。布鲁诺1600年遭受火刑的原因,并非因知行星围绕太阳作圆周运动。然而,人们是否能接受哥白尼提出的新的宇宙模式呢?全世界的人——尤其是权力极大的天主教会是否相信太阳是宇宙中心这一说法呢?由于害怕教会的惩罚,哥白尼在世时不敢公开他的发现。1543年,这一发现才公诸天下。即使在那个时候,哥白尼的发现还不断受到教会高无上的真理,凡是违背圣经的学说,Eighteen months passed. The Chief was in Quebec with Hannah and Abbie awaiting the arrival of Rug, who had been sent by his father to the Mother Land to dispose of two cargoes of timber. It was an unusually cold evening in June. Snow had been falling all day. The neighboring hills were covered with large feathery crystals, which, however, soon melted as the sun appeared for a moment before sinking behind the gray walls of the Castle St. Louis. Just as the evening gun was fired, news had reached the union Hotel that a vessel had been sighted near the Island of Orleans. It was ascertained that it was the Dorris, in command of Captain French, and that Rug was on board. They were soon speeding down Mountain Street in a caleche to the docks, where they secured passage in a small row-boat which was going out to the vessel. The genial captain invited them to take tea with him, and said that Rug was below supervising and arranging with the Customs Officer about the baggage of his numerous protégés, and would be on deck shortly. Hannah burst into a paroxysm of tears when she caught sight of her long-lost lover, who had been compelled to leave only a few weeks after their marriage. He looked twenty years older, and appeared careworn, haggard and ill. As they were seated round the table he gave an account of his travels. "When I received your letter," he said, addressing his father, "I chartered two vessels and persuaded Archie and Jonathan Campbell to go with me for a pleasure trip. We were nearly three months tossing about at the mercy of wind and wave when a hurricane swept the deck of the vessel, carrying with it the main-mast and sails. Water began to pour in at an alarming rate, and after a desperate struggle at the pumps the captain ordered all hands on deck. We felt that we had to prepare for the worst. The sailors had abandoned the pumps from exhaustion, and Jonathan and I took their places and worked until we, too, were exhausted, and as others took our places we retired to the stern, where we found Archie in a sheltered nook, seated upon a coil of rope, playing his violin, apparently oblivious of our perilous condition. "For two days the work at the pumps was a matter of life and death, and when at last the wind subsided we drifted about helplessly until a passing vessel saw our signals of distress and towed us from the Bay of Biscay to Bristol, where the necessary repairs were made to enable us to proceed to Liverpool. We soon disposed of the timber at good profit, and Jonathan, Archie and I took the stage-coach for London, where we had the honor of being presented at Court to gay Prince Geordie, who is acting as Regent, owing to his father's mental derangement. I wish you could have seen the Carleton House," he said, turning to Hannah. "He built it at a cost of £250,000 sterling, and had to sell his stud of race-horses and discharge most of his servants to meet the demands of the creditors, for he had led such a wild, dissipated life that the King and Parliament refused for a long time to help him out of his difficulties. "We visited many places of interest in London and the old farm in Kent, which we found bordered on that of General Wolfe. Then we crossed to France, and after having with great difficulty secured passports, drove to Paris. "If we had arrived on the scene only a few months sooner we might have seen how Napoleon turned Louis XVIII. from the kingdom, or we might have seen the great battle of Waterloo; but Napoleon is now safe at St. Helena, where he was sent last October." "The story of Napoleon Bonaparte," said Captain French, "presents probably the most remarkable example in the world of the action of great intellect and resolute will, unrestrained by conscience, and shows both the possible success which may reward, for a time, the most unscrupulous selfishness and also, fortunately, its certain ultimate failure and overthrow." "Notwithstanding which, I have the greatest admiration for Napoleon," said Rug. "The Captain's sentiments are mine," said the Chief. "He was a man of no conscience, no heart, and one of the most uncompromising enemies of constitutional liberty that the world has ever seen. I am amazed that a born republican like you, Rug, could see anything to admire in despotism or tyranny." "Did you see anything of poor Josephine?" asked Abbie. "No," he said. "The Empress Queen Dowager died two years ago, but we saw her beautiful home, 'Malmaison.' "If one may judge from appearances, it will take many years for France to recover from the effects of the Reign of Terror. My object, however, in visiting France and England was that I might see something of their progressive developments in agriculture and commerce, so that we might adopt the newest and best methods in building up our own little colony. I have brought with me," he continued, "the latest novelties in the way of general merchandise; I have brought the newest inventions in agricultural and milling machinery; I have Herefordshire and Devon cattle, of most renowned ancestors, who have not ceased to protest against a sea voyage from the time they left Liverpool. "Nor is this all," he said; "I have something better still on board for the new settlement, namely, twenty-five English families, who are going to take up land in the township and pay for it in work." "And who nearly turned mutineers," added the captain, slapping him on the shoulder, "did they not, Wright?" "How was that?" asked the Chief. "When we boarded the vessel at Liverpool," replied Rug, "some were bright and cheerful, but most of them were in tears, which showed that they did not leave the Old Land without a struggle. We soon weighed anchor and were under sail with a fair wind, but it came round to the east and blew fresher, so that we were forced to come to anchor not far from the place we left. The ship, as you may see, was fitted up for the timber trade, and has only a small cabin or quarter-deck. On each side are ranged two tiers of berths for passengers providing their own bedding. Along the open space in the middle we placed two rows of large chests which were used sometimes as tables, sometimes as seats—all of which I shall show you presently. There was much noise and confusion before all found berths; crying children, swearing sailors, scolding women, who had not been able to secure the beds they wanted, produced a chorus of a very melancholy nature. The disagreeableness of it was heightened by the darkness of the night and the rolling and tossing of the ship. After breakfast, as usual, all began to be sick. I took the advice of the sailors and drank some salt water, which acted as an emetic, and I soon felt better. "Unfortunately, while we were still at anchor, boats came from the shore with friends of the sailors, who smuggled a lot of liquor on board, and before the captain discovered it the whole crew was drunk. We were wakened at an early hour next morning by the violent motion of the ship, for there was a perfect gale blowing from the north-west. The sea was roaring and foaming around us. The passengers were all sick. Things grew worse and worse. Consternation and alarm were in every face. Children were crying, women wringing their hands, and I could see by the angry looks of the men that they would like to have thrown me overboard. The ship had little ballast, and it mounted the waves like a feather. Sometimes a hard sea would break over her with a shock that would make every one stagger. After a sleepless night, in which I received many a bruise and uttered many a groan, the captain informed us that the squall had carried away our mainyard and rigging, and that we were on our way back to Bristol to refit. At one time, when the ship was on her side, several chests, though strongly lashed to the deck, broke from their moorings, and in their progress downwards carried destruction to everything on which they happened to fall. "What a sight the deck presented! Do you remember, Captain? Clothes, spoons, shoes, hats, bottles, dishes, were strewn about in endless confusion. The next day the captain returned with the mainyard dragging behind his boat, but owing to a strong head wind we could not prepare nor rig it till the following day, when all the men on board who could get round it assisted at the work, and we were soon speeding along at the rate of six miles an hour with a fine favorable breeze. "The next day we made one hundred miles in twelve hours. I cannot describe what took place after that, for I was too ill. It was well that I was ill, for the indignation of the men and the fury of the women were almost unbounded as they thought of having consented to leave their comfortable cottages to follow me to what I had represented was a new and better country. "As we neared the banks of Newfoundland a most extraordinary phenomenon was produced by the dashing of the salt water against the bow of the ship in the evening. The water seemed on fire and produced a very fine effect. The next day a mass of ice appeared about two hundred yards distant. It was almost half a mile in length, and was moving south-east. Soon after we found the channel between Cape Breton and Cape Ray, and got into the ice. The captain sent eight men to the bow with fenders. One piece knocked splinters off the bow and threw us all down. About five days later we reached the Island of Anticosti, but I was too ill to see it. We saw porpoises in shoals plunging about the ship, while the sailors tried to harpoon them beneath the bow. About two hundred and eighty miles below Quebec the pilot came on board. His number was painted in large characters on his sail as well as on his boat. He had a cask of fresh water and some maple sugar, which he sold at an extortionate price to the passengers. "Near Bic Island we saw whales spouting water at a great height, and a habitant came out in a boat with a large basket of eggs, which he disposed of at a shilling per dozen, and so we continued on until the domes and towers of Quebec came in sight and I began to realize the inexpressible joy of being at home once more."* * Diary of Rev. Robert Bell and letters of R. Wright. Rug was a young man of great executive ability, a young man whose word could be relied upon with absolute certainty, a young man who proved himself the very soul of honor in all his business transactions.都被斥为“异端邪说”,凡是反对神权统治的人,都被处以火刑。新兴的资产阶级为自己的生存和发展,掀起了一场反对封建制度和教会迷信思想的斗争,出现了人文主义的思潮。他们使用的战斗武器,就是未被神学染污的古希腊的哲学、科学和文艺。这就是震撼欧洲的文艺复兴运动。文艺复兴首先发生于意大利,很快就扩大到波兰及欧洲其他国家。与此同时,商业的活跃也促进了对外贸易的发展。在“黄金”这个符咒的驱使下,许多欧洲冒险者远航非洲、印度及整个远东地区。远洋航行需要丰富的天文和地理知识,从实际中积累起来的观测资料,使人们感到当时流行的“地静天动”的宇宙 CHAPTER IV. AN INDIAN SUITOR. 1803. Machecawa and his friend O'Jawescawa became frequent visitors at the Wigwam. They would come in the morning, uninvited, and sit silently all day long before the open fire and observe all that was going on. The spinning-wheel and hand-loom were objects of unceasing interest to them, and though it proved a great distraction to the children in their studies, and to the girls in the performance of their domestic duties, to have them there, they were always treated not only with respect but with consideration and kindness. One morning Machecawa stood gazing intently into the fire. His face wore an expression of perplexity. At length he turned to the White Chief, who was explaining a mathematical problem to one of his boys, and said: "Big Injun, he want to speak his thoughts from books. He want to know white man's Manitou." "May I teach him, father? Just for an hour every day?" said Chrissy, a tall, fair, thoughtful girl of seventeen, who was known throughout the settlement as the "Saint," for she had been led to take a serious view of life by a Quaker friend in the old school at Woburn. "It would be such a pleasure for me to lead him to a knowledge of the truth." The father readily granted the request, and it was arranged that he should receive instruction from Chrissy every morning while the younger boys were having their lessons. Never had teacher a more apt, humble, or willing pupil. Never had pupil a more considerate, patient, kind-hearted instructor. Over and over again did she repeat words and sentences until at last the Indian found, to his unspeakable joy, that he was beginning to acquire the words pretty freely. The morning hour with Machecawa proved of such interest that it was not an uncommon thing to see the White Chief and all the children listening intently to Chrissy and the Indian as they compared their respective creeds. One morning, after she had been giving an account of the creation and the deluge, she said, "Now, tell me what you think of these things. Do the Indians ever think of how the world was made? Did they ever hear of a flood?" Machecawa replied in broken English, the interpretation of which is as follows: The Indian believes that the great Manabozo is king of all other animal kings. The West Wind is his father, and his mother is grand-daughter of the Moon. Sometimes he is a wolf; sometimes a hare; sometimes he is a wicked spirit. Manabozo was hunting with his brother, a wolf, who fell through the ice in a lake and was eaten by snakes. Manabozo was very cross and changed himself into the stump of a tree and surprised the king of the serpents and killed him. The snakes were all Manitous, and they made the water flood the world. Manabozo climbed a tree which grew and grew as the flood came up and was saved from the wicked spirits. Manabozo looked over the waters and he saw a loon, and he cried to the loon for help to save the world. The loon went under the water to look for mud to build the world again, but he could not find the bottom. Then a muskrat tried, but he came up on his back nearly dead. Manabozo looked in his paws and found a little mud, and he took the mud and the dead body of the loon and with it created the world anew again. "And do you believe that?" said the White Chief. "Our tribe she believe like that," replied the Indian. "What is that thing tied round your neck, Machecawa?" said Bearie, the second son, a short, well knit, sturdy-looking youth of eighteen, whose every expression reflected a bright, happy, generous disposition. "She am my Manitou," replied the Indian. "What is a Manitou? Every Indian you meet with seems to differ on the subject." "Some tam she am wan ting, some tam she am anodder." "That is evading the question," said Chrissy. "What kind of a Manitou have you got inside of that little bag which is tied round your neck?" persisted Bearie. "Will you let me see it?" "No! No!! No!!!" he said excitedly. "My Manitou she am not be pleese." "Come, now, old man," he said. "Tell us all about it." "What is it?" "How did you get it?" "What is it for?" "Waal," he said, reluctantly, "When I am a boy, me, just become a man, my fadder, he say, 'Machecawa, tam you got a manitou.' My face he paint black, black. He say, heem, 'you no eat no teeng seex days.' By em by I am dream some teeng, me, dat some teeng she am my manitou. She help me kill beeg bear; she mak dem Iroquois dogs run like one wild moose. My fadder she am pleese; she make my manitou on my arm—see!" he said, rolling up his sleeve. On his shoulder was the rude outline of a fish, which had been tatooed with sharp bones and with the juice of berries rubbed in. "But what is in the little bag?" asked Bearie. "Will you let me see it?" After a good deal of reluctance he gave in at last, and two curious boys untied the precious parcel, while the others, equally curious, looked over his shoulders at a few old broken fish bones which were all the little bag contained. "Well, old man," said Bearie, slowly replacing the sacred relics, "we put our faith in something better than that. The white man trusts the Great Spirit in heaven to care for him and to take him to heaven when he dies." "Any bear in hebben?" asked the Indian. "No," said Bearie, "only good people." "Dat hebben she am no good for big Injun," said Machecawa, sadly. "De happy hunting ground she am full of moose, buffalo, bear, beaver. She am far, far away at de end of land, where de sun she sleep—two, tree moons away. One beeg dog she am cross, an' she bark at dead Injun, but he go on, an' on, an' on, an' den he am glad." It began to dawn upon the vigilant mother at length that it was not so much the wonders of civilization nor the desire to "speak his thoughts from books" that led Machecawa day after day to the Wigwam, as an ever-increasing interest in her fun-loving daughter, Abbie, who was a year younger than Chrissy, and who seemed unconscious of the fact that the eyes of the red chief were ever upon her.学说值得怀疑,这就要求人们进一步去探索宇宙的秘密,从而推进了天文学和地理学的发展。1492年,意大利著名的航海家哥伦布发现新大陆,麦哲伦和他的同伴绕地球一周,证明地球是圆形的,使人们开始真正认识地球。[4] 对他国的影响 在教会严密控制下的中世纪,也发生过轰轰烈烈的宗教革命。因为天主教的很多教义不符合圣经的教诲,而加入了太多教皇的个人意志以及各类神学家的自身成果,所以很多信徒开始质疑天主教的教义和组织,发起回归圣经的行动来。捷克的爱国主义者、布拉格大学校长扬·胡斯(1369~1415年)在君士坦丁堡的宗教会议上公开谴责德意志封建主与天主教会对捷克的压迫和剥削。他虽然被反动教会处以火刑,但他的革命活动在社会上引起了强烈的反应。捷克农民在胡斯党人的旗帜下举行起义,这次运动也波及波兰。1517年,在德国,马丁·路德(1483~1546年)反对教会贩卖赎罪符,与罗马教皇公开决裂。1521年,路德又在沃尔姆国会上揭露罗马教廷的罪恶,并提出建立基督教新教的主张。新教的教义得到许多国家的支持,波兰也深受影响。 

3月9日晚,中国西昌卫星发射中心,成功发射了第54颗北斗导航卫星。


▲ 长征三号运载火箭载第54颗北斗卫星发射升空


这,不是一颗普通的卫星。


“中国北斗”覆盖全球,需要55颗卫星。


换个角度说,中国距全面且彻底赶超美国“GPS”,


只差一颗卫星


一旦所有卫星全部就位,那么,中国“北斗”在亚太地区的精准度,将达到惊人的10厘米,远超美国现在的30厘米。



曾经,中国一直用着美国的“GPS”。


然而,惨烈的海湾战争,爆发了。


美国将卫星的使用,变成了战争的一部分。


惊醒的中国发誓,不惜一切代价,


必须拥有自己的卫星系统


随后,中国陆续投资超2.3亿欧元,加入了欧盟主导的“伽利略卫星计划”。


但6年过去,始终被排挤在外。


在欧、美嫌弃的白眼中,


中国航天人,趟着屈辱,艰难地跋涉了百年


从东方红一号到“长五”、载人航天、深空探测,


人造卫星 第1颗、第2颗、第3颗……第54颗!



2020年,我们终于可以骄傲地说:


“中国,再不用被美国GPS处处牵制,


中国航天弯了百年的腰,挺直了!”



美国航天局前局长米切尔·格里芬说:


“中国航天最令人感到可怕的,


不是它所取得的成就,


而是它背后站着,一群无畏的人…”


 0 1  

  泰山  


2007年11月,


中国首颗绕月卫星嫦娥1号发射成功,


万众欢呼拥抱,


一位78岁的老者,独自走到僻静的角落,


背过身,掏出手绢偷偷抹着眼泪……


这位双鬓斑白的老者,叫孙家栋


中国航天史上,


太多第一与这个名字紧紧相连


“第一枚导弹总体、第一颗人造地球卫星、第一颗科学实验卫星、第一颗返回式遥感卫星,第一颗通信卫星、静止轨道气象卫星、资源探测卫星、北斗一号工程、中国探月一期工程……


他是总设计师、总工程师。


没人知道,


人前永远笑呵呵的他,


为保国之机密,一生都在孤独中隐忍。



结婚30年,妻子才知他的职业。


为了让中国的嫦娥一号比印度提前问世,


75岁那年,他硬生生穿碎了5双布鞋。


80岁,他再次站上西昌卫星发射的指挥部,


北斗导航定位卫星腾空而起,


亿万欢呼,世界惊叹!



背后,是他在医院硬拔掉了输液针头……


92岁,他的身影仍时而出现在发射现场。


左一:中国“ 两弹一星”功勋科学家 孙家栋


他说,


“7年学飞机,9 年造导弹,50年放卫星。


祖国在最困难的岁月里,


倾尽所有培养了我(赴俄学习),


我必须无愧人民



国之泰山,萤火残年,


点亮,巍巍北斗!



 0 2  

  转身  


没有人知道,


飞天的脚步,从地底的黑暗中开始。



这张陌生的面孔,99.9%的中国人都不曾认识。


他叫王焕玉,粒子天体物理和空间探测专家,


卫星系统有效负荷总指挥。



LVD实验,必须在荒无人烟的地下山洞进行。


在无边的湿冷和孤寂中,


他奋战了36年,


2017年6月15日,“慧眼”卫星成功发射,


结束了空间高能天体物理领域。


中国无自主数据的历史!


2018年11月4日,


王焕玉在一次学术报告中,


突发大面积心梗,倒在了讲台上。



他临终前的最后一句话是:


“我不舒服,对不起,研究成果还没讲完——”


王工,您看到了吗?


您曾摆在书桌上的“嫦娥四号”,正飞向寰宇。


                       神舟、嫦娥、天宫、悟空、慧眼

……


此后,星河璀璨


您的名字,永远闪耀其中。



 0 3  

 天罡  


此次,长征三号甲系列火箭总指挥,名叫岑拯


身为湖北人,疫情最严峻时,


他再次缺席在家人身边。



17年前,非典疫情笼罩中国,


2003年5月25日,长征三号托举北斗1号03星升空,


火箭刺破阴霾,发射取得成功。


全国上下,为之一振。


这枚被誉为“金牌火箭”的大国重器和它的研制队伍,


用成功为抗击非典疫情,增添了国人的信心



17年后的今天,同样是疫情肆虐全国,


同样是长征三号甲系列火箭执行国家任务,


中国航天人同样选择了“无悔逆行”



挂在发射场的一副标语,上面写着:


“让病毒远离发射,用成功鼓舞民族”。



 0 4  

 天眼 


“中国天眼”,终于竣工。


中国天眼


这是全球最大、最灵敏的射电望远镜。


仅2年,它发现的脉冲星数量,


就超过了欧美同期发现量的总和。


在它的身后,屹立着一位中国老人——


“天眼之父” 南仁东



这位瘦弱的老者,


放弃了国外300倍薪水和优厚的科研条件,


毅然回到了祖国怀抱。


此后22年,他埋头在贵州的深山之中,


从选址、设计、建设施工,


作为总设计师,事事亲力亲为。



他说:


“中国,需要这样一台望远镜!”


2016年9月25日,“中国天眼”正式启用,


南仁东带病重返贵州大窝凼,


再一次,他颤巍巍艰难地爬上了“天眼”,


久久,深情凝望自己毕生的心血……



20天前,他被确诊为肺癌晚期。



2017年10月10日,


“中国天眼”第一次传来捷报,震惊世界,


南仁东却没能等到这一刻。


此时,连续奋战8000多个日夜的他,


刚刚去世25天。


为中国天眼,他燃尽一生,却没能看到一个成果。



2018年9月,一颗国际永久编号的小行星,


被命名为“南仁东星”



 0 5  

 爱情  



这是一张神州二号飞船发射前,


高能所工作人员在发射场的合影。



中间两鬓斑白的老者,被称为“中国的居里夫人”。


她,叫何泽慧


1946年巴黎,何泽慧与伊莱娜·居里合影

何泽慧,生于名门望族,清朝三百年,


家族出过十五名进士,二十九名举人,


山西人讲话,“无何不开科”。



清华毕业后,何泽慧到法国深造,


在居里夫人的见证下,与钱三强举行了婚礼。


抗日战争爆发,

已在国外享有盛誉的钱三强何泽慧,

带着仅7个月的女儿毅然回国,

驰援祖国的核物理研究工作。

“中国原子弹之父”钱三强辞世后,

何泽慧拒绝了条件更好的院士楼,

将家传大宅,无偿捐献给国家。

曾是何家私宅的苏州“网师园”

而她,一直守着他们夫妻二人

1955年搬进的老房子。

屋里的陈设丝毫没有变动。

屋子保留着钱三强在世时的模样,

此后的20年间,

何泽慧与满屋书香为伴,

直至2011年离世。

谁言中国无贵族?


这位中国老者有些佝偻的背影,


诠释了一切。


何泽慧 老人背影



 0 6  


 国有难,召必回,视死如归  


 

中国的飞速发展,是科研人的生死相依。


早在新中国成立之初,美国有强发禁令,


禁止35名学者回到“红色中国”,


然而,他们终究低估了


文弱学者的铮铮铁骨和国之深情


中国航天之父  钱学森


中国原子弹之父  钱三强


中国力学之父  钱伟长


“两弹一星”元勋  郭永怀


“两弹元勋”  朱光亚


中国高温合金之父  师昌绪


还有,


天文学家 张钰哲,


化学家 侯德榜


数学家  熊庆来、华罗庚、苏步青


建筑学家  梁思成


地质学家  李四光


地理学家 竺可桢


物理学家 邓稼先


……


新中国成立前,侨居海外的科学家有5000余人


到了1956年底,超过2000人,回到了祖国。


而这一数字,正在飞速刷新。


2017年以来,约4500名留美科学家归国!


大部分是人工智能、材料学等重要领域的科学家。



近几年,新一辈的中国年轻学者


李开复、庄晓莹、“哈佛八剑客”等,


也纷纷毅然归国



                     书生应怀报国志,此去深藏功与名!



 0 7  

飞天  


从嫦娥奔月到呵壁问天,


中国人从不缺少飞天的梦想。



50年前,


中国第1颗人造卫星东方红1号发射成功。



17年前,中国第一艘载人航天飞船


神舟五号发射成功,


航天员杨利伟在轨飞行14圈,历时21小时,


中国成为前苏联和美国之后,


第三个将人类送上太空的国家。



12年前,神舟七号首次搭载三名航天员。


翟志刚出舱作业,刘伯明在轨道舱内协助,


实现了中国第一次太空漫步,


苍茫太空,终于留下了中国人的印记。



3年前,长征七号运载火箭搭载天舟一号货运飞船,


在文昌航天发射场点火发射。


两天后,“天舟”牵手“天宫”,


为“太空加油”的实施奠定了完美基础。



从“两弹一星”到空间站屹立,


中国人从未停止对星辰大海的探索。


这,就是中国航天人,


眼望苍穹,心有日月!


美国“GPS”、欧洲“伽利略计划”,


你们听好了!


曾经的中国,你爱理不理,


现在的中国,你高攀不起!


点个“在看”,致敬


铁骨铮铮的中国航天人


下一站,星辰、大海!


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